Motivation is one of the actively usable and important term in modern pedagogic psychology. It includes factors conditioned by actions and behavior that push them for response on internal (emotions, feelings ...) and external (environment) motives. Generally, person’s action is oriented mostly on goal achievement and is based on certain motives. Therefore motivation may be explained as the process directed toward the achievement of desirable goal.
Motivation to study consists of various components. We discuss hereto some important interpersonal factors that provide motivation to study.
Every person is curious by nature. He/she constantly seeks new experience, puzzles; tries to solve new problems and etc. needful skills and competences are developed after that for adaptation to environment and establishing internal balance.
Studying – studying is effective when it is directed toward the interest of student. One of the main tasks of teacher is to arouse curiosity in students regarding subject. Curiosity is the factor that develops internal motivation and therefore plays important role in studying and in process of studying. It turns mind from passive into active mode, toward discovering new ideas and representing theories, perceiving new events and facts. Based on the above mentioned curiosity pushes student toward research and discovery.
It is desirable that teacher can arouse curiosity in students within the context of familiar experience, should use such motives that will not be totally unknown. Balance between existing cognitive scheme of student and difficulty of new task is very necessary - otherwise student could not be able to complete given task and will move to passive condition.
Teacher can make students be curious by: providing with practical information; discussing on problematic situations represented in real fact before giving it; by questioning to express theories; giving new, unknown facts; complying rational and emotional factors; using illustrations from life and fiction; introducing visual and audio materials; brief historical excursion and etc.
Self-confidence is important motive for creation positive mood for studying. Student must be self-confident and must be assured in his/her ability and shouldn’t doubt in achievement of success in academic activity, if we want involving him/her in it. This feeling of success very often makes student, and generally any person, to be in the same condition again and therefore becomes one of the factors for internal motivation.
Teacher should know about level of knowledge and competences of students, advantageous or undesirable confidence, if we want students to have self-confidence. Teacher can plan such activities that can change students’ negative confidence into positive. First and foremost, teacher should give easy tasks to them – this will establish feeling of success in students. Besides, adequate appraisal of done actions, to recognize positive side of it and in case of need – to give constructive comments is very important. Academic activity, which is based on effective feedback, will give student feeling of his/her own progress and success, thus gradual motivation will encourage to appraise effectively his/her own ability and to establish self-confidence.
Establishing self-confidence is indirectly connected to the development of competences which can be achieved through different methods and relevant tasks of developmental age and student’s interest. Afterwards developed competences will become encouraging factor and the ground for establishing self-confidence.
Attitude may be explained as negative or positive appraisal of events, facts, ideas, persons by individual. It depends on individual perception of external world and comes from person’s thought, emotions, feelings and experience. Establishing individual attitude is conditioned by environment, society, religion, culture and tradition where person grows up and develops. Here should be said, that modern, changeable environment, where values, cultural and social norms are intensively evaluated and reevaluated, makes important impact on changing attitude. School, family, society, Media press and etc. are constantly trying to change person’s thoughts, emotions and feelings regarding this or that matter or event. So, it is important as teacher should guide students’ mind by establishing positive attitudes.
Attitude is composed of three main components:
- Affective component includes emotional reaction of person toward particular objects. It comes from emotional experience of individual. Such attitude is not the result of logical thought, but it expresses internal relationship, feelings and emotions of person;
- Behavioral component is expressed in particular actions. Student does not know whether it is applicable or not some kind of particular action for him/her unless he/she does not experienced it in practice. Such attitude is established mainly on the basis of observing his/her actions or others actions;
- Cognitive component is based on rational experience and facts. Such attitude gives opportunity to individual to evaluate events, persons, facts or opinions on the basis of logic and existed experience.
It is also important that teacher should know attitude of students regarding certain matters and that their behaviors will not always be similar. For an instance, if a student comes ready for a lesson, it does not always mean that he/she has positive attitude toward studying. Student’s action may be conditioned by other motive – fear of punishment or/and promise of gift. Teacher’s main goal is to direct students’ motivation toward studying and development for whole life.
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In order to define attitude of students and to encourage establishment of positive attitude, it is necessary:
- to create safe academic environment;
- to put more clearness and accuracy in relationship;
- to use effective communication as the instrument for establishment of trust;
- to give students opportunity to express their ideas freely;
- to express respect toward ideas and opinions of students;
- try to define which component of attitude is the basement in student’s view;
- actively involve student in academic activity in accordance with his/her individual ability and personal interest, make student see his/her own meaning;
- to give students opportunity to define independently their personal attitude by judging and discussing, to think over reasons of existed attitude and factors;
- they should discuss on how positive attitude will help them to solve training tasks and future success;
- they should discuss on what kind of influence could have negative attitude in their development and future;
- Encourage them for establishing self-confidence.
Individual necessities of students may be distinguished. Famous classification is offered by American psychologist Abraham Maslow. He separated five categories of requirements of individual:
- Biological (nutrition, thirst, sleep...) requirement;
- Safety (stability, protection...) requirement;
- Belonging and love (family, group relationship, empathy...) requirement;
- Self-esteem and recognition (having statuses, success, reputation, image...) requirement;
- Self-realization requirement.
Biological or basic requirements are represented on the lowest stage and requirements of personal development and self-realization stands on the very top in the hierarchical model of Maslow. Goals of education are oriented on everyday behavior of higher requirements. Students should have been established such skills and attitude as they are: ability to work with team, social thought, listening to different idea and sharing, self-realization, etc..
Effective studying of students depends of the level of motivation. According to hierarchy of Maslow, the determiner of requirements for studying may be the different motivation. For an instance, let us remember the illustration mentioned above, where attitude of student toward study could have been conditioned by: fear of punishment, promise of gift, requirement of recognition, interest or other.
Teacher should determine requirements and necessities of students for organizing effective academic activity oriented on results; teacher must determine on which stage of hierarchy is student and what motives is basement in study. As a result, he/she must work out adequate strategies which provide active participation of students in academic activity and raising their motivation.
As it is seen from the discussed factors, the sources for motivation is various and each of them plays decisive part in raising motivation of students and their success. If you want to encourage development of student’s ability of studying, it is necessary to think over principles of motivation and foresee them in planning academic programs and also – in academic activity. This will give you opportunity to establish effective and creative academic environment based on psychological necessities of students and to provide active participation and willingly join of each student in academic activity.